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Initially known as Heresy, Tucson, AZ's Atrophy was formed in 1986 and featured vocalist Brian Zimmerman, guitarists Chris Lykins and Rick Skowron, bassist James Gulotta, and drummer Tim Kelly. Modeled on the high-precision thrash metal quintets prowling the Bay Area a few hundreds of miles to the north (Exodus, Vio-Lence, etc.), Atrophy only recorded a couple of albums for Roadrunner Records and both 1988's Socialized Hate and 1990's Violent by Nature offered competently executed but relatively unoriginal (er, atrophied?) thrash metal. Indeed, few protests were heard when Atrophy decided to ride off into the sunset following these two efforts, and reunion gigs have understandably been scarce. However, years later Skowron, Gulotta, and Kelly did work together again in a new project named Head Circus.