In 1947 Art Blakey formed a short-lived big band that he named the 17 Messengers. He also recorded with a smaller group called the Jazz Messengers. In 1954 Blakey was a member of a co-operative band with Kenny Dorham, Hank Mobley, Doug Watkins and Horace Silver. This band recorded in 1955 as the Jazz Messengers with Silver as nominal leader. With minor personnel changes the group remained together until 1956. Subsequently, Blakey formed his own band, calling it the Jazz Messengers, a name he retained for all his bands until his death in 1990.