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Though their first official release didn't appear until 2000, Opprobrium actually began life in 1986 as an extreme metal band formed by brothers Francis (guitar/vocals) and Moyses Howard (drums). Natives of Rio de Janeiro, the Howards emigrated to New Orleans and formed a band called Incubus (no relation to the '90s alt-metal outfit). The original incarnation featured bassist/lead vocalist Scot LaTour, and the trio's 1987 demo Supernatural Death landed them a deal with the small Brutal Records imprint. Their official debut, Serpent Temptation, was released in 1988; however, Latour departed soon afterward, leaving Francis to take over vocal duties. Incubus signed with Nuclear Blast in 1990 and soon released their follow-up Beyond the Unknown; recording with Francis on bass as well, Incubus eventually tabbed Mark Lavenia as the full-time bassist. But shortly thereafter, in 1991, Incubus disbanded. After quite a bit of time off, the Howard brothers decided to re-form the band in 1997 with guitarist Luiz Carlos. Since a better-known Incubus had already laid claim to the name, the brothers rechristened their band Opprobrium. Although Carlos was officially in the lineup, he didn't have enough time to learn the band's new material before recording sessions began; plus, bassist Andre Luiz Oliveira didn't join until the album was completed, meaning that the band's 2000 comeback effort, Discerning Forces, was again the product of a two-piece. ~ Steve Huey