Hybridization Theory: Understanding Molecular Geometry
William R. Sponholtz, III, B.S., M.S., Ph.D.
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One of the perennial limiting factors for students learning chemistry is their inability to imagine molecules in three-dimensions. We have bridged this gap by employing new technologies to create state of the art three-dimensional animations within our text. Uniquely presented, students learn how to take a two-dimensional molecule off the blackboard during lecture and fold it into three-dimensions or envision a molecule in three-dimensions from a page in a book, which is arguably the most essential skill when learning Chemistry. Starting with the atomic orbital theory, the sp3, sp2, and sp hybrid orbitals are developed and utilized within many supplementary examples allowing the student exposure to Newman projections, conformational analysis, geometric isomers, deviations from ideal bond angles, nitrogen inversion, and many other interesting topics. Uniquely presented, the visuals found within this text have helped label this text, “a must have” to enhance the students understanding of how atoms within a molecule are oriented in three-dimensions. After all, the student who has the ability to visualize molecules in three-dimensions is rewarded with a better understanding of chemical properties, physical properties, and most importantly, the ability to predict chemical reactivity.
Runtime for visuals total approximately: 30 Minutes
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Chapter 1: Why Hybridization Theory was Developed, Why is it Important to Visualize Atoms within a Molecule in Three-Dimensions.
Chapter 2: Review of s and p Atomic Orbitals, How sp3 Carbon Formed, Shape of sp3 Orbitals and Angles, Representation on Blackboard or in Book, Sigma Bonds, Free-Rotation of C-C Sigma Bonds, Conformational Analysis, Energy of Eclipsed and Staggered Conformations, Newman Projections, Dihedral Angles, Barrier of Rotation.
Chapter 3: How sp2 Carbon Formed, Shape of sp2 Orbitals and Angles, Representation on Blackboard or in Book, pi Bonds, Electron Density and Geometry of Double Bond, How to Draw Double Bonds in 3-D, Geometric Isomers (E and Z), Isomerization of Geometric Isomers.
Chapter 4: How sp Carbon Formed, Shape of sp Orbitals and Angles, Representation on Blackboard or in Book, How to Draw Triple Bonds in 3-D, pi Bonds, Electron Density and Geometry of Triple Bond.
Chapter 5: Deducing Hybridization of Atoms, Making the Leap from 2-D to 3-D via Hybridization Theory (Many Examples Worked for the Student), Heteroatom Hybridization, VSEPR, Deviations from Ideal Bond Angles, Nitrogen Inversion.
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