Readings in Islamic Political Philosophy
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The object of writing on the subject of the political philosophy of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is to show mankind how the Prophet initiated the movement of liberty, equality, fraternity and justice in the Arabian Peninsula and how it gradually spread to other countries of the world; and how, in the wake of this enthusiasm for knowledge, new schools, universities and centres of learning were established in Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus and other cities of the Middle East; and how this seed-pot of learning, in its multi-dimensional aspects, sown in the fertile plains and valleys of Spain by the Arabs and blossoming into the lustre of Moorish elegance and beauty in all its richness, circulated unimpeded for centuries throughout the peninsula of Spain, particularly in cities like Cordova, Seville, Toledo, Granada, Malaga, Saragossa, Lisbon, Jaen and Salamanca, among others and the South of France. Then from there it radiated to other parts of France, Germany and the rest of Europe and across the Channel to England.
Thus manifold influences from the civilisation of Islam bathed European life in their radiance in diverse ways. Neither Roger Bacon nor his later namesake introduced the experimental method into science. Roger Bacon, like many other earlier European scientists, was just one of the messengers who brought Muslim science and method to Christian Europe.