Testing The Second Law: The Physics Connecting Fluctuation, Gravity, and Equilibrium – vol.1
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The text and illustrations in this ebook introduce the scientific concepts, experiments, and findings concerning two discoveries in the physics of particle fluctuation. The material is primarily an overview written for the lay reader who is interested in new developments in physics, and, particularly, for both novice and experienced scientists to help guide them towards additional and independent research that tests the issues. 100% of the ebook is open to preview.
The first discovery adds another entry into the list of energies in physics’s inventory: equilibrium solute-concentration fluctuation in most liquid solutions develop gravitational potential energy in a gravitational field.
The second discovery indicates that the gravitational potential energy of equilibrium solute-concentration fluctuation will preclude some composite systems from a steady state of equilibrium. It is this second issue that is the most significant and difficult; it conflicts the equilibrium statement of the second law of thermodynamics. The second law has been a powerful scientific principle for over 150 years, and it's not wrong, but apparently it's not complete.
See published manuscript and ongoing research online at NKBorsuk(dot)net.