Organic Chemistry - Video
by J. Michael McBride
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(CHEM 125) This is the first semester in a two-semester introductory course focused on current theories of structure and mechanism in organic chemistry, their historical development, and their basis in experimental observation. The course is open to freshmen with excellent preparation in chemistry and physics, and it aims to develop both taste for original science and intellectual skills necessary for creative research. This course was recorded in Fall 2008.
|1||Video01 - How Do You Know?||Professor McBride outlines the course with its goals and requirements, including the required laboratory course.||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|2||Video02 - Force Laws, Lewis Structures and Resonance||Professor McBride begins by following Newton's admonition to search for the force law that describes chemical bonding.||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|3||Video03 - Double Minima, Earnshaw's Theorem and Plum-Puddings||Continuing the discussion of Lewis structures and chemical forces from the previous lecture, Professor McBride introduces the double-well potential of the ozone molecule and its structural equilibrium. The inability for inverse-square force laws to...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|4||Video04 - Coping with Smallness and Scanning Probe Microscopy||This lecture asks whether it is possible to confirm the reality of bonds by seeing or feeling them. It first describes the work of "clairvoyant" charlatans from the beginning of the twentieth century, who claimed to "see" details of atomic and...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|5||Video05 - X-Ray Diffraction||Professor McBride introduces the theory behind light diffraction by charged particles and its application to the study of the electron distribution in molecules by x-ray diffraction. The roles of molecular pattern and crystal lattice repetition are...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|6||Video06 - Seeing Bonds by Electron Difference Density||Professor McBride uses an hexagonal "benzene" pattern and Franklin's X-ray pattern of DNA, to continue his discussion of X-ray crystallography by explaining how a diffraction pattern in "reciprocal space" relates to the distribution of electrons...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|7||Video07 - Quantum Mechanical Kinetic Energy||After pointing out several discrepancies between electron difference density results and Lewis bonding theory, this lecture turns to quantum mechanics in search of a fundamental understanding of chemical bonding. Professor McBride points out that the natu||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|8||Video08 - One-Dimensional Wave Functions||Professor McBride expands on the recently introduced concept of the wave function by illustrating the relationship of the magnitude of the curvature of the wave function to the kinetic energy of the system, as well as the relationship of the square of the||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|9||Video09 - Chladni Figures and One-Electron Atoms||After showing how a double-minimum potential generates one-dimensional bonding, Professor McBride moves on to multi-dimensional wavefunctions. Solving Schrödinger's three-dimensional differential equation might have been daunting, but it was not, because||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|10||Video10 - Reality and the Orbital Approximation||In discussions of the Schrödinger equation thus far, the systems described were either one-dimensional or involved a single electron. This lecture begins with a discussion of how increased nuclear charge affects the energies of the one-electron atoms...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|11||Video11 - Orbital Correction and Plum-Pudding Molecules||The lecture opens with tricks ("Z-effective" and "Self Consistent Field") that allow one to correct approximately for the error in using orbitals that is due to electron repulsion. This error is hidden by naming it "correlation energy."||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|12||Video12 - Overlap and Atom-Pair Bonds||This lecture begins by applying the united atom "plum-pudding" view of molecular orbitals, introduced in the previous lecture, to more complex molecules. It then introduces the more utilitarian concept of localized pairwise bonding between atoms. Formulat||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|13||Video13 - Overlap and Energy-Match||Professor McBride uses this lecture to show that covalent bonding depends primarily on two factors: orbital overlap and energy-match. First he discusses how overlap depends on hybridization; then on how bond strength depends on the number of shared...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|14||Video14 - Checking Hybridization Theory with XH3||This lecture brings experiment to bear on the previous theoretical discussion of bonding by focusing on hybridization of the central atom in three XH3 molecules. Because independent electron pairs must not overlap, hybridization can be related to...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|15||Video15 - Chemical Reactivity: SOMO, HOMO, and LUMO||Professor McBride begins by using previous examples of "pathological" bonding and the BH3 molecule to illustrate how a chemist's use of localized bonds, vacant atomic orbitals, and unshared pairs to understand molecules compares with views based on the mo||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|16||Video16 - Recognizing Functional Groups||This lecture continues the discussion of the HOMO/LUMO view of chemical reactivity by focusing on ways of recognizing whether a particular HOMO should be unusually high in energy (basic), or a particular LUMO should be unusually low (acidic). The approach||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|17||Video17 - Reaction Analogies and Carbonyl Reactivity||Continuing the examination of molecular orbital theory as a predictor of chemical reactivity, this lecture focuses on the close analogy among seemingly disparate organic chemistry reactions: acid-base, SN2 substitution, and E2 elimination.||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|18||Video18 - Amide, Carboxylic Acid and Alkyl Lithium||This lecture completes the first half of the semester by analyzing three functional groups in terms of the interaction of localized atomic or pairwise orbitals. Many key properties of biological polypeptides derive from the mixing of such localized...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|19||Video19 - Oxygen and the Chemical Revolution (Beginning to 1789)||This lecture begins a series describing the development of organic chemistry in chronological order, beginning with the father of modern chemistry, Lavoisier. The focus is to understand the logic of the development of modern theory, technique and...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|20||Video20 - Rise of the Atomic Theory (1790-1805)||This lecture traces the development of elemental analysis as a technique for the determination of the composition of organic compounds beginning with Lavoisier's early combustion and fermentation experiments, which showed a new, if naïve...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|21||Video21 - Berzelius to Liebig and Wöhler (1805-1832)||The most prominent chemist in the generation following Lavoisier was Berzelius in Sweden. Together with Gay-Lussac in Paris and Davy in London, he discovered new elements, and improved atomic weights and combustion analysis for organic compounds. Inventio||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|22||Video22 - Radical and Type Theories (1830-1850)||Work by Wöhler and Liebig on benzaldehyde inspired a general theory of organic chemistry focusing on so-called radicals, collections of atoms which appeared to behave as elements and persist unchanged through organic reactions. Liebig's French rival, Dum||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|23||Video23 - Valence Theory and Constitutional Structure (1858)||Youthful chemists Couper and Kekulé replaced radical and type theories with a new approach involving atomic valence and molecular structure, and based on the tetravalence and self-linking of carbon. Valence structures offered the first explanation...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|24||Video24 - Determining Chemical Structure by Isomer Counting (1869)||Half a century before direct experimental observation became possible, most structures of organic molecules were assigned by inspired guessing based on plausibility. But Wilhelm Körner developed a strictly logical system for proving the structure of benz||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|25||Video25 - Models in 3-D Space (1869-1877); Optical Isomers||Despite cautions from their conservative elders, young chemists like Paternó and van't Hoff began interpreting molecular graphs in terms of the arrangement of a molecule's atoms in 3-dimensional space. Benzene was one such case, but still more...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|26||Video26 - Van't Hoff's Tetrahedral Carbon and Chirality||With his tetrahedral carbon models van't Hoff explained the mysteries of known optical isomers possessing stereogenic centers and predicted the existence of chiral allenes, a class of molecules that that would not be observed for another 61 years.||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|27||Video27 - Communicating Molecular Structure in Diagrams and Words||It is important that chemists agree on notation and nomenclature in order to communicate molecular constitution and configuration. It is best when a diagram is as faithful as possible to the 3-dimensional shape of a molecule, but the conventional...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|28||Video28 - Stereochemical Nomenclature; Racemization and Resolution||Determination of the actual atomic arrangement in tartaric acid in 1949 motivated a change in stereochemical nomenclature from Fischer's 1891genealogical convention (D, L) to the CIP scheme (R, S) based on conventional group priorities. Configurational is||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|29||Video29 - Preparing Single Enantiomers and the Mechanism of Optical Rotation||Within a lecture on biological resolution, the synthesis of single enantiomers, and the naming and 3D visualization of omeprazole, Professor Laurence Barron of the University of Glasgow delivers a guest lecture on the subject of how chiral molecules...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|30||Video30 - Esomeprazole as an Example of Drug Testing and Usage||The chemical mode of action of omeprazole is expected to be insensitive to its stereochemistry, making clinical trials of the proposed virtues of a chiral switch crucial. Design of the clinical trials is discussed in the context of marketing. Otolaryngolo||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|31||Video31 - Preparing Single Enantiomers and Conformational Energy||After mentioning some legal implications of chirality, the discussion of configuration concludes using esomeprazole as an example of three general methods for producing single enantiomers. Conformational isomerism is more subtle because isomers...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|32||Video32 - Stereotopicity and Baeyer Strain Theory||Why ethane has a rotational barrier is still debatable. Analyzing conformational and configurational stereotopicity relationships among constitutionally equivalent groups reveals a subtle discrimination in enzyme reactions. When Baeyer suggested strain-in||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|33||Video33 - Conformational Energy and Molecular Mechanics||Understanding conformational relationships makes it easy to draw idealized chair structures for cyclohexane and to visualize axial-equatorial interconversion. After quantitative consideration of the conformational energies of ethane, propane...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|34||Video34 - Sharpless Oxidation Catalysts and the Conformation of Cycloalkanes||Professor Barry Sharpless of Scripps describes the Nobel-prizewinning development of titanium-based catalysts for stereoselective oxidation, the mechanism of their reactions, and their use in preparing esomeprazole. Conformational energy of cyclic...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|35||Video35 - Understanding Molecular Structure and Energy through Standard Bonds||Although molecular mechanics is imperfect, it is useful for discussing molecular structure and energy in terms of standard covalent bonds. Analysis of the Cambridge Structural Database shows that predicting bond distances to within 1% required...||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|36||Video36 - Bond Energies, the Boltzmann Factor and Entropy||After discussing the classic determination of the heat of atomization of graphite by Chupka and Inghram, the values of bond dissociation energies, and the utility of average bond energies, the lecture focuses on understanding equilibrium and rate processe||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
|37||Video37 - Potential Energy Surfaces, Transition State Theory and Reaction Mechanism||After discussing the statistical basis of the law of mass action, the lecture turns to developing a framework for understanding reaction rates. A potential energy surface that associates energy with polyatomic geometry can be realized physically for a lin||10/27/2009||Free||View in iTunes|
Not the professor!
The professor is great but they did a terrible job editing and from a digital lecture stand point. The entire lecture is filmed from a single camera and they film the professor and the screen at the same time, so you can't make out what the screen says.
McBride is a legend
I don't know how he makes these awesome lectures.
Can’t see a thing
The quality on this video is very low. You are not able to make out a single chart and rarely a word, rendering this useless as a learning tool. That said as an O-Chem course it’s pretty standard, maybe a bit simpler than most judging by the lectures. Nothing new, just lucky-rich Yale students getting silver spoon-fed and easy A’s. Self education… “but look now you can become a genius for free on the internet!”...hahaha… what a joke. Now get back to your wage slave you subservient taxable burden.